MongoDB is a document-oriented NoSQL database for storing large amounts of data. MongoDB uses collections and documents rather than the tables and rows found in conventional relational databases. The fundamental unit of data in MongoDB is a pair of key-value pairs, which make up documents. Collections are the equivalent of relational database tables in that they store sets of documents and perform specific functions. A database called MongoDB first became popular in the middle of the 2000s.
Collections, which serve as the equivalent of relational database tables, are groups of documents. Data in a collection cannot be dispersed across multiple databases, even though collections can contain any kind of data.
The BSON document storage and data interchange standard offers a binary representation of JSON-like documents. As data volumes and throughput demands rise, automatic sharing is another crucial feature that enables data in a MongoDB collection to be distributed across several computers for horizontal scalability.
For data consistency, the NoSQL DBMS employs a single master architecture, with backups of the primary database kept in subsidiary databases. For automated failover, operations are automatically replicated to those backup databases.
The vendor MongoDB Inc. offers both free and paid versions of MongoDB. MongoDB Enterprise Server adds more security features, an in-memory storage engine, administrative and authentication facilities, and monitoring capabilities with Ops Manager over the open-source MongoDB Community Edition.
Users have access to the MongoDB Compass graphical user interface (GUI), which allows them to deal with document structure, run queries, index data, and more. Users can connect the NoSQL database to their business intelligence software to see data and generate reports using SQL queries using the MongoDB Connector for BI.
In 2016, MongoDB Inc. released a cloud database as a service called MongoDB Atlas, following other NoSQL database vendors' lead. AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform are used to power Atlas. With intentions to expand it to on-premises databases, MongoDB later created a platform called Stitch for application development on MongoDB Atlas.
As part of MongoDB 4.0 in 2018, the business also included support for multi-document ACID transactions. By adhering to the ACID principles of atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability across many documents, MongoDB can handle a wider range of transactional workloads with assurance of precision and dependability.
Dwight Merriman and Eliot Horowitz, who were designing web applications at DoubleClick, an online advertising firm that is now owned by Google Inc., ran into development and scalability problems with conventional relational database systems. The word "humongous" was used as the basis for the database's name to signify its ability to handle massive volumes of data.
Merriman and Horowitz participated in the establishment of 10Gen Inc. in 2007 to market MongoDB and associated products. In 2013, the business changed its name to MongoDB Inc., and in October 2017, it began trading publicly under the ticker code MDB.
In addition to the commercial licenses provided by MongoDB Inc., the DBMS was made available as open-source software in 2009 and is now accessible under the conditions of Version 3.0 of the GNU Affero General Public License from the Free Software Foundation.